The Quran about oath
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful.
In the relationship there are different kinds of methods of persuasion of one’s own rightness. One of such tools used between people is the institution of taking an oath. In the Quran, the word “aymaanun” is used to refer to this phenomenon.
Often, to put themselves in a favorable light, people use their oath as a sign of their “spirituality”, of course, for a certain benefit:
And do not make God an object for your oaths that you are being righteous and circumspect! Improve the relationships of people to each other. God is Hearing and Knowing. (2:224)
Indeed, those who exchange the obligation before God and their oaths for a small price will have no share in the hereafter. God will not speak to them or look at them on the day of standing before Him, nor will He purify them. They will have a painful punishment. (3:77)
The benefit is mainly associated with the usual deception, which in any case will not remain without God’s attention:
Fulfil your obligations before God when you obliged! Do not break your oaths after confirming them! You have made God, over you, a surety! Indeed, God knows what you do!
And do not be like she who broke her yarn after fastening the threads. You take your oaths to get wealth, to make your headship superior to the other. Indeed, God tests you thereby! And He will surely make clear to you on the day of standing before Him that over which you used to differ! (16:91-92)
And do not take oaths to get wealth between you, or your foot will slip after it was firm standing, and you will taste evil for hindering others from the way of God, and you would have a great punishment! (16:94)
Deception can be different, with different goals and objectives. Here is an example of using deception against believers:
And those who believe say about the ones who swore greatest oaths by the name of God that indeed they were with you: “Their deeds have become worthless, and they have become losers!” (5:53)
Have you not considered those who patronize people with whom God has become discontented? They are neither of you nor of them. They give false oaths while they know! God has prepared for them a severe punishment! Indeed, it was evil that they were doing!
They take their oaths as a cover and repel the ways of God. For them is a humiliating punishment! (58:14-16)
When the venal ones come to you, they say, “We testify that you are indeed the messenger of God.” God truly knows that you are His messenger, and God testifies that indeed the venal ones are liars.
They take their oaths as a cover and deviate others from the way of God. Indeed, it is evil that they are doing! (63:1-2)
Therefore, frivolity in oaths should be avoided:
God does not impose blame upon you for idle talks in your oaths, but He imposes blame upon you for what your hearts have earned. God is Forgiving and Forbearing! (2:225)
God will not impose blame upon you for repeal of your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for complication of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your families or clothing them or the freeing of a deprived. But whoever cannot afford it- then let him fast three days. That is the expiation for oaths! Guard your oaths! Thus does God make clear to you His signs that you may be grateful! (5:89)
And they swore by God with their strongest oaths that if a sign came to them, they would surely believe in it!
Say, “The signs are only with God, but when they came, they would not perceive them as signs! (6:109)
They swore by God with strongest of the oaths that if you ordered them, they would go forth.
Say, “Do not swear! Obedience is approved. Indeed, God is acquainted with that which you do.” (24:53)
And they swore by God with their strongest oaths that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the headships! But when a warner came to them, it did not increase them except in aversion! (35:42)
And most importantly, taking an oath requires responsibility. Responsibility in an oath is especially needed in court proceedings:
That is appropriate for exposing a given testimony and to fear that you might take your oath back after its confirmation. And beware of God and listen, God does not guide the apostates! (5:108)
Special responsibility for violation of oaths is imposed during the hostilities. Violation of the oath at this time is punished very severely:
And if they break their oaths after obligation and defame your duty, then fight the leaders of the closed nature! Indeed, there are no oaths to them – might be, they will cease!
Would you not fight a people who broke their oaths?
They conspired to expel the messenger! They had begun first. Do you fear them? But God has more right that you should fear Him, if you are believers. (9:12-13)
But compared with the responsibility in this world, the responsibility on the Day of Debt is incredibly greater, especially for oaths that do not correspond to the truth:
They swore by God with the strongest oath: “God will not resurrect the one who dies!” By the true promise from Him, He will, but most of the people do not know. (16:38)
Or do you have oath from Us, reaching the day of standing before God? Indeed you have what you judge. (68:39)
Let’s pay attention to our oaths