The Quran about battles
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful
In the light of the current political situation, where the false idea of the military doctrine of Islam is spread, the Quranic position on military operations becomes more urgent than ever.
No community of people in any form of organization can exist without rules of defence and warfare.
The Quran, as a guide to action, details the conditions under which armed actions are possible.
At its heart, the essence of conflicts is the struggle of truth with falsehood. False human systems never perceived the divine truth and made the utmost efforts to discredit the Creator’s institutions. However, faced with the perseverance of the messengers and believers, the “elite” chose the path of military confrontation. All this is no accident, after all, through the resistance to aggression, the Creator wants to test the firmness of people’s faith.
Those messengers – some of them We caused to exceed others. Among them were those to whom God spoke, and He raised some of them in degree. And We gave Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear proofs, and We supported him with the Pure Spirit. If God had willed, those succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, and some of them believed and some of them closed themselves. And if God had willed, they would not have fought each other, but God does what He intends. (2:253)
The missions of almost all prophets were accompanied by battles, where they were indispensable participants.
The Quran reminds us of David’s feat.
So they defeated them by permission of God, and Dawud (David) killed Jalut (Goliath), and God gave him the kingship and judgement and taught him from that which He willed. And if it were not for God protecting some people from the others, the earth would have been corrupted, but God is full of bounty to the worlds. (2:251)
From ancient times there was a period when people of one region tried to avoid military actions. This divine position remained from previous messengers and was invariably observed on the Arabian Peninsula. However, with the advent of the truth of the Most High, even this centuries-old ban, which was observed, lost its significance before the hatred of polytheists against the Quran.
Fight in the way of God those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed, God does not like transgressors. And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you. Distemper is worse than killing. And do not fight them at the forbidden for battles place for earthly worship until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the closed. And if they cease, then indeed, God is Forgiving and Merciful.
Fight them until there is no temptation to distemper, but there is an obligation before God. But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the obscurantists!
The sacred month is the sacred month, but for violations is legal retribution. So whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you. Beware of God and know that God is with those who are circumspect! (2:190-194)
Initially, faith inspires in the heart the intention to convey as much people as possible with salvatory information. True believers experience the dangerous delusion of others. However the use of force is contrary to the nature of their faith.
Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And God Knows, while you know not. (2:216)
But faith gives strength to overcome one’s passions and does not allow transgressing the limitations of the Creator.
Even in the face of imminent death, the believers tried to coordinate their actions with the prescriptions of God.
They ask you about the sacred month – about fighting therein.
Say, “Fighting therein is great sin, but averting from the way of God and closing yourself from it and forbidden for battles place for earthly worship and the expulsion of its people therefrom are greater sin in the sight of God! Distemper is greater than killing!” And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your duty if they are able. And whoever of you reverts from his duty and dies – he is the one who closed himself. For those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the hereafter, and those are the companions of the fire, they will abide therein. (2:217)
What obscurantists respected, and then violated, the believers tried to observe as much as possible. But everything fits the limit, therefore, in response to aggression, the Creator allowed to fully deploy military operations at the end of the period.
And when the forbidden for battles months have passed, then kill those who associate others with God, wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give purifying expenditure, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, God is Forgiving and Merciful. (9:5)
Again, an indispensable condition is the prescription to cease the battle when the enemy requests peace. After all, the goal of believers is to deliver the Lord’s Prescription, and not to destroy opponents.
So when you meet those who closed themselves, strike necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. And if God had willed, He could have taken vengeance upon them, but that is to test some of you by means of others. And those who are killed in the way of God – never will He waste their deeds! (47:4)
On the contrary, the intentions of the opponents to the prescriptions of the Creator were to prevent believers from remaining in the divine system at all costs.
They wish you would close yourself as they closed themselves so you would be alike. So do not take from among them patrons until they emigrate for the way of God. But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them, except for those who are related to people with whom you made a covenant or those who come to you restraining from fighting you or fighting their own people. Take not from among them any patron or helper!
And if God had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then God has not made for you a way against them. You will find others who wish to obtain security from you and [to] obtain security from their nation. Every time they are returned to distemper, they fall back into it. So if they do not withdraw from you or offer you peace or restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you overtake them. And those – We have made for you against them a clear authorization. (4:89-91)
The Quranic quality of the warrior is based on courage and fearlessness. Courage, valor and persistence in war are the desired qualities of the believers in the battle.
O you who have believed! When you meet those who closed themselves advancing for battle, do not turn to them your backs. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day, unless swerving [as a strategy] for war or joining [another] company, has certainly returned with discontentment [upon him] from God, and his refuge is Hell – and wretched is the destination!
And you did not kill them, but it was God who killed them. And you threw not, when you threw, but it was God who threw that He might test the believers with a good test. Indeed, God is Hearing and Knowing! (8:15-17)
No matter how things develop, restrictions and sanctions remain unchanged.
And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake – then the freeing of a deprived believer and a ransom to his owner, unless he counts it as charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer – then the freeing of a deprived believer. If he was from a people with whom you have a covenant – then the freeing of a deprived believer and a ransom to his owner. And whoever does not find a ransom – must fast for two months consecutively, as repentance before God. And God is ever Knowing and Wise! (4:92)
However, this rule has an exception. The exception occurs when the believers themselves violated God’s prescription and took up arms against each other. Although, the aim of the intervention is still the reconciliation of the parties.
And if two factions among the believers should fight, then make settlement between the two. But if one of them oppresses the other, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance of God. And if it returns, then make settlement between them in justice and act in balance. Indeed, God loves those who act in balance!
The believers are but brothers, so make settlement between your brothers. And beware of God that you may receive mercy! (49:9-10)
Also military actions can be fought against those who violated the peace treaty or helped the aggressors, despite their commitment to the Prescription.
And God repelled those who closed themselves, in their rage, not having obtained any good. And sufficient was God for the believers in battle, and ever is God Powerful and Exalted in Might!
And He brought down those who supported them among the holders of the Prescription from their fortresses and cast terror into their hearts [so that] a party you killed, and you took captive a party. And He caused you to inherit their land and their homes and their properties and a land which you have not trodden. And ever is God, over all things, competent! (33:25-27)
The Messengers of the Lord were universal. They could exhort softly, but also they could give a worthy response to the enemy. The messengers did not shy away from being among the rank-and-file warriors and show their valor. Muhammad was an example for believers.
And when you left your family in the morning to post the believers at their stations for the battle – and God is Hearing and Knowing (3:121)
But the destiny of the messenger and his presence should in no way influence the actions of the believers. After all, the duty of the prophet is only to convey the message from the Creator and to implement the Creator’s ordinances.
Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm God at all; but God will reward the grateful! (3:144)
Not all people who declared their faith were of “good quality” As it is always the case, weak companions were in the surroundings of Muhammad as well.
Then after distress, He sent down upon you security [in the form of] drowsiness, overcoming a faction of you, while another faction worried about themselves, thinking of God other than the truth – the thought of ignorance, saying, “Is there anything for us in this matter?”
Say, “Indeed, the matter belongs completely to God!” They conceal within themselves what they will not reveal to you.
They say, “If there was anything we could have done in the matter, some of us would not have been killed right here!”
Say, “Even if you had been inside your houses, those decreed to be killed would have come out to their death beds.” [It was] so that God might test what is in your thoughts and purify what is in your hearts. And God is Knowing of that within the thoughts! (3:154)
Such behavior cannot be approved by the Almighty. Cowardice and doubt are a hindrance to the truth.
O you who have believed! Do not be like those who closed themselves and said about their brothers when they traveled through the land or went out to fight, “If they had been with us, they would not have died or have been killed,” so god makes that opinion a regret within their hearts. And it is God who gives life and causes death, and God is Seeing of what you do. And if you are killed in the way of God or die – then forgiveness from God and mercy are better than whatever they accumulate. And whether you die or are killed, unto God you will be gathered! (3:156-158)
Negative qualities cannot lead to anything good, except failure.
Say, “Never will fleeing benefit you if you should flee from death or killing; and then [if you did], you would not be given enjoyment except for a little!” (33:16)
We perfectly understand that all this comes from the heart. Everything depends on the condition and filling of the cardiac “vessel”.
Those who believe say, “Why has “a chapter” not been sent down? But when a precise “chapter” is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is disease looking at you with a look of one overcome by death!
And more appropriate for them [would have been] obedience and good words. And when the matter was determined, if they had been true to God, it would have been better for them! (47:20-21)
This disease – the most dangerous one that human could have – is hypocrisy.
Long before the Quran was sent down, precedents of duplicity also took place.
Have you not considered the eminent of the Children of Israel after [the time of] Moses?
When they said to a prophet of theirs, “Send to us a king, and we will fight in the way of God”?
He replied, “Perhaps you would refrain from fighting if fighting was prescribed for you.”
They said, “And why should we not fight in the way of God when we have been driven out from our homes with our children?” But when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, except for a few of them. And God is Knowing of the obscurantists. (2:246)
In a calm environment, it is not difficult to announce faith and adherence to certain rituals. Another thing is checking the quality of faith in an extreme situation.
And what struck you on the day the two armies met was by permission of God that He might make evident the [true] believers. And that He might make evident those who are venal.
For it was said to them, “Come, fight in the way of God or defend!”
They said, “If we had known the fighting, we would have followed you.” They were nearer to closed nature that day than to faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And God is most Knowing of what they conceal
Those who said about their brothers while sitting [at home], “If they had obeyed us, they would not have been killed!”
Say, “Then prevent death from yourselves, if you should be truthful.”
And never think of those who have been killed in the way of God as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision, Rejoicing in what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty, and they receive good tidings about those after them who have not yet joined them.
There will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve. They receive good tidings of favor from God and bounty. God does not allow the reward of believers to be lost! (3:166-171)
The battle on the way of God tear the veil called “believer” from people unworthy of that title.
Have you not seen those who were told, “Restrain your hands from transgression and establish prayer and give purifying expenditure”? But then when fighting was ordained for them, at once a party of them feared men as they fear God or with [even] greater fear!
They said, “Our Lord, why have You decreed upon us fighting? If only You had postponed [it for] us for a short time!”
Say, The enjoyment of this world is little, and the hereafter is better for he who circumspect. And injustice will not be done to you, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed]!” (4:77)
One of the effective methods of defeating the enemy is subversive activity in the rear. The most effective method is the spread of panic. But any subversive activity in any society is harshly repressed.
If the venal, those in whose hearts is disease and those who spread rumors in al-Madinah do not cease, We will surely incite you against them; then they will not remain your neighbors therein except for a little. Accursed wherever they are found, [being] seized and massacred completely. [This is] the established law of God with those who passed on before; and you will not find in the law of God any change! (33:60-62)
There is no place in the whole Quran that appreciates unfair behavior. For example, explosion of oneself among ordinary people has no basis.
Unfortunately, zombie radical Muslims blindly follow the interpretation of their “scientists”, who present some ayats, like the one below, in completely perverted form.
The ones who have believed, emigrated and striven in the way of God with their wealth and their lives are greater in rank in the sight of God. And it is those who are the attainers [of success]! (9:20)
“Sheikhs” convince their adherents that explosion of oneself among enemies is a struggle by the soul. However, a person reading and analyzing the Quran attentively will notice the falsity of such an interpretation, for in such passages there is information about the zeal on the way of God, when neither strength nor health is spared. And specifically in the battle, during the war, the believer must either be killed or die with his death. There is no third.
Indeed, God has purchased from the believers their lives and their wealth! For that they will have the garden! They fight in the way of God, they kill and are killed by the true promise from Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Quran. And who is truer to his obligation than God? So rejoice in your deal which you have concluded with Him! This is a great attainment! (9:111)
And those who emigrated for the way of God and then were killed or died – God will surely provide for them a good provision. And indeed, it is God who is the best of providers! (22:58)
Blowing up of oneself among the civilian population does not fit into this prescription.
The universal Quranic combination of peaceful co-existence with a firm rebuff to the enemy, with a certain behavior during the war, gives believers a chance of success in their activities, both in the earthly life and on the Day of Debt.
And their Lord responded to them, “Never will I allow to be lost the work of [any] worker among you, whether male or female; you are of one another. So those who emigrated or were evicted from their homes or were harmed in My way or fought or were killed – I will surely remove from them their misdeeds, and I will surely admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from God, and God has with Him the best reward!” (3:195)
An unbiased view on the Quran will show that there can be no question of any aggression on the part of believers. All descriptions of military operations: the attitudes towards the enemy, towards hypocrites, refer only to the period of the war, where an indispensable condition is the cessation of the battle by the declaration of peace by the enemy.
Such are the prescriptions of the Quran, and the inconsistency of people does not give grounds for accusing the divine Prescription of all sins.