Muhammad’s speech in the Quran. Part 1
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful
The historic Islam is based on two pillars: the Literature (Quran) and the traditions. Most Muslims consider these two sources are equally a revelation of God. In fact, traditions contain a reference to Muhammad’s statements, which constitute the “skeleton” of historical Islam. For legitimization of the stories about the prophet, a whole science about the people who have passed this information was developed. There is a gradation degree of reliability of the information received. All these measures were taken in order to put the oral tradition into written form.
Considering the written sources related to Muhammad, we see that the most significant written source remaining is the Literature (Quran), because the written text of the Prescription, as opposed to the tradition, is preserved since the messenger’s life. Analyzing the Literature (Quran), there were found 342 places with the messenger’s direct speech.
Readers are invited to the series of articles based on Muhammad’s statements, divided into thematic units.
Literature – Quran
The Arabs has always had faith in the Creator. Their pantheistic beliefs did not deny the main God. They believed in Him, and in order to make the best impact on them, the Creator announced His authorship of the Literature (Quran), through Muhammad.
Say: He who knoweth the secret of the heavens and the earth hath revealed it (Literature-Quran). Indeed, He ever is Forgiving, Merciful. (25:6)
The logic of the audience demanded a clear explanation of the mechanism, how the revelation was received. To which, a comprehensive response has been given.
Say, “The Pure Spirit has brought it down from your Lord in truth to make firm those who believe and as guidance and good tidings to the humble!” (16:102)
Refusing to give up their worldview raised doubts about the divinity of the Prescription. In the heat of resistance to the new doctrine it was suggested that the messenger fabricated the Literature (Quran). To such statement the following call was made.
Say, “If mankind and the invisible creatures gathered in order to produce the like of this Literature (Quran), they could not produce the like of it, even if they were to each other helpers!”(17:88)
Anticipating groundless accusations, in order to facilitate the task, the Creator has offered to try to reproduce a portion of the Literature (Quran).
Or do they say, “He invented it (Literature)”?
Say, “Then bring ten chapters like it (Literature) that have been invented and call upon whomever you can besides God, if you should be truthful!” (11:13)
Finally to show the powerlessness of the opponents of the Prescriptions, it was suggested to try to come up with only one chapter like the Literature (Quran).
Or do they say, “He invented it?”
Say, “Then bring forth “a chapter” like it and call upon whomever you can besides God, if you should be truthful!” (10:38)
Subsequent events have shown the weakness of the arguments of the ones rejecting the Literature (Quran). The principle of not imposing regulations of the Lord gave the following answer to the mindless rejection of God’s guidance.
Or do they say, “He invented it”?
Say, “If I have invented it, then upon me is my crime; but I am innocent of what [crimes] you commit!” (11:35)
Received revelation explained many important things, therefore, the messenger was instructed to deliver the information in full without haste.
So high is God, the true King! And, do not hasten with the Literature (Quran) before its suggestion is commanded to you, and say, “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge!” (20:114)
Messenger in no way singled out his own particularity and exclusivity. On the contrary, he appealed to his human nature, in hope for correct reaction of his tribesmen.
Say, “I am only a man like you, to whom has been suggested that your god is one God! So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord – let him correct himself and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone!” (18:109)
Muhammad has consistently defended the position that he personally does not belong to any of it. The way he follows is referred only to the Prescription.
Say, “I do not tell you that I have the depositories of God or that I know the hidden, nor do I tell you that I am a maintainer. I only follow what is suggested to me!”
Say, “Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Then will you not give thought?” (6:50)
The Prophet’s aim was only to warn about the threat of punishment, which is mainly crashed on the blank wall of incomprehension.
Say, “I only warn you by suggestion.” But the deaf do not hear the call when they are warned! (21:45)
Muhammad’s appeal came down to the most important question of being: who influence the world?
Say, “What thing is greatest in testimony?”
Say, “God is witness between me and you. And this Literature (Quran) was suggested to me that I may warn you thereby and whomever it reaches. Do you testify that with God there are other deities?”
Say, “I will not testify!”
Say, “Indeed, He is but one God, and indeed, I am free of what you associate with Him!” (6:19)
In turn, to debate at the proper level, the messenger demanded from his opponents to justify their ideology by presenting any other divine source.
Say, “Have you considered that which you invoke besides God? Show me what they have created of the earth; or did they have partnership in the heavens? Bring me a Prescription [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you should be truthful!” (46:4)
This requirement was not surprising, as the Literature (Quran) was positioned as a continuation of the former Prescriptions. However, polytheists denied them as well. In this regard, the messenger asked people to show another divine source.
Say, “Then bring a Prescription from God which is more guiding than either of them that I may follow it, if you should be truthful!” (28:49)
In reality, in order to justify their position, the opponents of Muhammad were not able to present the transcendent source of guidance. They were only able to access the traditions of their ancestors. And every tradition receives information only from its environment.
And if We had made it a non-Arabic Literature (Quran), they would have said, “Why are its signs not explained in detail? Why is it a foreign and not Arabic!?”
Say, “It is, for those who believe, a guidance and cure.”
And those who do not believe – in their ears is deafness, and it is not clear for them. Those are seemed to be called from a distant place. (41:44)
Appeal to the mind in the exhortation is at the forefront, because the only way for rethinking is thinking.
Say, “Have you considered: if it (Literature – Quran) is from God and you closed yourselves from it, who would be more astray than one who is in extreme dissension?”(41:52)
The controversy was not confined by any particular group of people. The appeal was to all the people, among which there were adherents of the Prescriptions revealed earlier.
Or do they say, “He has invented it?”
Say, “If I have invented it, you will not possess for me [the power of protection] from God at all. He is most knowing of that in which you are involved. Sufficient is He as Witness between me and you, and He is the Forgiving the Merciful!”
Say, “I am not something original among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I only follow that which is suggested to me, and I am not but a clear warner!”
Say, “Have you considered: if it was from God, and you closed yourselves from it while a witness from the children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you were arrogant… ?” Indeed, God does not guide the obscurantists! (46:8-10)
As can be seen from the passage, there were sincere believers among them, who carefully read the Prescription, and was not the subject of influence of “priestly” people. For such people was not difficult to understand the divinity of the Literature (Quran) and take it with heart.
Say, “Believe in it or do not believe!”
Indeed, those who were given knowledge before it – when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, And they say, “Exalted is our Lord! Indeed, the promise of our Lord has been fulfilled!” And they fall upon their faces weeping, and it increases in them humble submission. (17:107-109)
Unfortunately, not all of the holders of the Prescription accepted the Literature (Quran). Many of them showed unconstructive rejection to the Revelation of the Creator.
And those to whom We have given the Prescription rejoice at what has been revealed to you, but among the factions are those who deny part of it.
Say, “I have only been commanded to worship God and not associate [anything] with Him. To Him I invite, and to Him is my return!” (13:36)
For the call of the messenger, representatives of the holders of the Prescription occupied virtually the same position as that of the polytheists – faith only in their heritage.
And when it is said to them, “Believe in what God has revealed,” they say, “We believe in what was revealed to us.” And they close themselves from what came after it, while it is the truth confirming that which is with them.
Say, “Then why did you kill the prophets of God before, if you are believers?” (2:91)
The theological dispute led many of them to the hostile attitude even to Gabriel.
Say, “Who was an enemy to Gabriel?”
It is [none but] he who has brought the Literature (Quran) down upon your heart, by permission of God, confirming that which was before it and as guidance and good tidings for the believers.” (2:97)
The blind persistence in defending their bases does not imply harmony in the relationships between religious opponents.
And the Jews or the Christians will never be pleased with you until you follow their community.
Say, “Indeed, the guidance of God is the Guidance.” If you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, you would have against God no patron or helper. (2:120)
As situation changed, many people followed the righteous road, as well as many hypocrites leaked into the believer’s creed. However, after they “cooked in the pot” of the true followers of the Literature (Quran), many of them became afraid of disclosure.
The venal ones are apprehensive lest “a chapter” be revealed about them, informing them of what is in their hearts.
Say, “Mock! Indeed, God will expose that which you fear.” (9:64)
Fear of the disclosure did not save hypocrites from the description of their features in the Prescription.
Founded in the Literature (Quran) the principle of fairness to all allows the entire palettes of human beliefs freely coexist.
So to that invite, and remain on a right course as you are commanded and do not follow their passions.
Say, “I have believed in what God has revealed of the Quran, and I have been commanded to do justice among you. God is our Lord and your Lord. For us are our deeds, and for you your deeds. There is no [need for] argument between us and you. God will bring us together, and to Him is return!” (42:15)
Faith and confidence in the Literature (Quran) leaves no doubt that all the differences and actions will be finally judged by truth on the Day of Debt.
Indeed, He who imposed upon you the Literature (Quran) will take you back to a place of return.
Say, “My Lord is most knowing of who brings guidance and who is in clear error!” (28:85)
The conclusion from this passage is that only two types of people will be on the Day of Debt: those with the Guidance and those without it in error. The Almighty calls the Prescription as the only Guidance. Only compliance with the divine Presription provides insurance against errors.