The Quran about those who closed themselves. Part 1

In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful

One of the foundations of people’s relations in society is the principle of “a native – a stranger”. This circumstance is clearly expressed in different confessions (religions) and defined by the label “disbeliever”. This expression acts as a kind of boundary between the adept of the particular religion and the rest of the community.

In historical Islam, the concept of “kyafir” is developed, which traditionally means – unfaithful, disbelieving. This term derives any subject from a “legitimate” position in relation to believers, which in some cases allows: the deprivation of life, of property, of certain rights, status and benefits.

What does this term actually mean from the position of the Quran?

The root of the word “kyafirun” is the forms: “kafara, kufrun, kafrun” and have meanings – “to cover, to hide, to close, to be closed.”

As can be seen from the meanings of these words, there is no concept of “unfaithful” or “disbeliever.”

For correct understanding, let’s define from the Quran a semantic content of the given definition.

Types of closed nature

The one, who does not have the desire to comprehend his life, automatically closes himself from the Creator of its meaning.

  • Nature closed from God:

O you who have believed! Believe God and His messenger and the Prescription that He sent down upon His messenger and the Prescription which He sent down before. And whoever closes himself from God, His maintainers, His Prescription, His messengers, and the last day has certainly gone far astray! (4:136)

Thus have We sent you to a headship before which headships have passed on so you might recite to them that which We suggested to you, while they closed themselves from the Gracious!

Say, “He is my Lord; there is no deity except Him. Upon Him I rely, and to Him is my return!” (13:30)

Have you not considered those who exchanged the favor of God for closed nature and settled their nation [in] the ruined home of Hell? (14:28)

His companion said to him while he was conversing with him, “Have you closed himself from Him who created you from dust and then from a sperm-drop and then proportioned you [as] a man? (18:37)

Say, “Sufficient is God between me and you as Witness. He knows what is in the heavens and earth. And they who have believed in vainness and closed themselves from God – it is those who are the losers.” (29:52)

Say, “Do you indeed close yourselves from Him who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.” (41:9)

But if they turn away – then We have not sent you over them as a guardian; upon you is only notification.

And indeed, when We let man taste mercy from us, he rejoices in it; but if evil afflicts him for what his hands have put forth, then indeed, man closes himself! (42:48)


Being satisfied with his present state, a person having closed nature does not perceive the God’s Prescription.

  • Nature closed from the Prescription:

And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is [already] with you, and be not the first to close yourselves from it. And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and beware of Me! (2:41)

Those to whom We have given the Prescription recite it with its true recital. They believe in it. And whoever closes himself from it – it is they who are the losers. (2:121)

…and do not exchange My signs for a small price. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed – then it is those who closed themselves! (5:44)

A people asked such before you; then they became thereby closed ones. God has appointed neither sea nor domesticated animals, nor dense tissue, nor circling around. But those who closed themselves invent lies about God, and most of them do not reason. (5:102-103)

And We have certainly diversified for the people in this Literature (Quran) from every kind of example, but most of the people refused anything except closed nature. (17:89)

And those who closed themselves say,

“Why was the Literature (Quran) not revealed to him all at once?”

Thus that We may strengthen thereby your heart. And We have spaced it distinctly. (25:32)

And those who closed themselves say, “We do not believe neither in this Literature (Quran) nor in what was before it!” (34:53)

Say, “Have you considered: if it (Literature – Quran) is from God and you closed yourselves from it, who would be more astray than one who is in extreme dissension?”(41:52)

Ask, “Even if I brought you better guidance than that upon which you found your fathers?”

They said, “Indeed we closed ourselves from that with which you were sent!” (43:24)

Say, “Have you considered: if it was from God, and you closed yourselves from it while a witness from the children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you were arrogant… ?” Indeed, God does not guide the obscurantists!

And those who closed themselves say of those who believe, “If it had [truly] been good, they would not have preceded us to it.”

And when they are not guided by it, they will say, “This is an ancient libel!” (46:10-11)


The nature closed from the Prescription is naturally expressed by closing oneself from the signs of the Most High.

  • Nature closed from the signs:

And those who will close themselves and deny Our signs – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein!” (2:39)

Whoever is an enemy to God and His maintainers and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael – then indeed, God is an enemy to the closed ones!

And We have certainly revealed to you signs [which are] clear proofs, and no one would deny them except the apostates! (2:98-99)

Those messengers – some of them We caused to exceed others. Among them were those to whom God spoke, and He raised some of them in degree. And We gave Isa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear proofs, and We supported him with the Pure Spirit. If God had willed, those succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, and some of them believed and some of them closed themselves. And if God had willed, they would not have fought each other, but God does what He intends.

O you who have believed! Spend from that which We have provided for you before there comes a day in which there is no exchange and no friendship and no intercession. And those who closed themselves – they are the obscurantists! (2:253-254)

… And He revealed the distinction.

Indeed, those who closed themselves from the signs of God will have a severe punishment, and God is exalted in Might, the Owner of Retribution! (3:4)

Indeed, the duty in the sight of God is humility. And those who were given the Prescription did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. And whoever is closed from the signs of God, then indeed, God is swift in account!

So if they argue with you, say, “I have humbled myself before God, and [so have] those who follow me!”

And say to those who were given the Prescription and [to] the unsophisticated, “Have you humbled yourselves?” And if they humbled, they are rightly guided; but if they turn away – then upon you is only the notification. And God is Seeing of His servants!

Those who closed themselves from the signs of God and kill the prophets without right and kill those who order balance from among the people – give them tidings of a painful punishment! (3:19-21)

In it are clear signs – the standing place of Ibrahim (Abraham). And whoever enters it shall be safe. And [due] to God from the people is a pilgrimage to the house – for whoever is able to find thereto a way. But whoever closed – then indeed, God is free from need of the people.

Say, “O holders of the Prescription! Why do you close yourselves from the signs of God while God is witness over what you do?”(3:97-98)

O you who have believed, if you obey a party of those who were given the Prescription, they would turn you back, after your belief, [to being] closed ones.

And how could you close themselves while to you are being recited the signs of God and among you is His messenger? And whoever holds firmly to God has been guided to a straight path! (3:100-101)

They have been put under humiliation wherever they are overtaken, except for connecting “rope” of God and people. And they have drawn upon themselves discontentment from God and have been put under destitution. That is because they closed themselves from the signs of God and killed the prophets without right. That is because they disobeyed and transgressed! (3:112)

Indeed, those who closed themselves from Our signs – We will drive them into a fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, God is ever Exalted in Might and Wise! (4:56)

We took from them a solemn covenant. And for their breaking of the covenant and their nature closed from the signs of God and their killing of the prophets without right and their saying, “Our hearts are wrapped”. Rather, God has sealed them because of their closed nature, so they believe not, except for a few.

And for their closed nature and their saying against Maryam (Mary) a great slander. (4:155-156)

It is God who created the heavens and the earth and sent down rain from the sky and produced thereby some fruits as provision for you and subjected for you the ships to sail through the sea by His command and subjected for you the rivers. And He subjected for you the sun and the moon, continuous, and subjected for you the night and the day. And He gave you from all you asked of Him. And if you should count the favor of God, you could not enumerate them. Indeed, man is “dark” and closed! (14:32-34)

That is their recompense because they closed themselves from Our signs and said, “When we are bones and crumbled particles, will we [truly] be resurrected [in] a new creation?”

Do they not see that God, who created the heavens and earth, is able to create the likes of them? And He has appointed for them a term, about which there is no doubt. But the obscurantists refuse [anything] except closed nature! (17:98-99)

Have those who closed themselves not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe? (21:30)

And thus We have sent down to you the Prescription. And those to whom We gave the Prescription believe in it.

And among them are those who believe in it. And none reject Our signs except the closed ones! (29:47)

And when evil touches the people, they call upon their Lord, turning in repentance to Him. Then when He lets them taste mercy from Him, at once a party of them associate others with their Lord.  So that they will close themselves from that We have granted them. Then enjoy yourselves, for you are going to know. (30:33-34)

And when waves come over them like canopies, they supplicate God, sincere to Him in duty. But when He delivers them to the land, there are of them who are moderate from gratefulness. And none rejects Our signs except every closed traitor! (31:32)

To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. And they who closed themselves from the signs of God – it is those who are the losers! (39:63)

This is guidance. And those who have closed themselves from the signs of their Lord will have a painful punishment of foul nature! (45:11)

But the ones who closed themselves and denied Our signs – those are the companions of the fire, abiding therein; and wretched is the destination! (64:10)


The nature closed from the messengers of the Lord is of the same nature as the one closed from God and His Prescriptions.

  • Nature closed from the messengers:

Indeed, those who closed themselves from God and His messengers and wish to discriminate between God and His messengers and say, “We believe in some and closed ourselves from others,” and wish to adopt a way in between. (4:150)

And they wonder that there has come to them a warner from among themselves. And the closed ones say, “This is a magician and a liar! (38:4)

When the messengers had come to them before them and after them, [saying], “Serve not except God!” they said, “If our Lord had willed, He would have sent down the maintainers, so indeed we closed ourselves from that with which you have been sent!” (41:14)


All this background dictates the nature closed from the very faith.

  • Nature closed from the faith

This day you are allowed: all good foods, the food of those who were given the Prescription is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them, and women unapproachable without the covenant from among the believers and women unapproachable without the covenant from among those who were given the Prescription before you, when you have given them their due compensation, being unapproachable without the covenant, not depraved and not taking lovers. And whoever closes himself from the faith – his work has become worthless, and he, in the hereafter, will be among the losers. (5:5)

And when they come to you, they say, “We believe.” But they have entered with closed nature, and they have certainly left with it. And God is most knowing of what they were concealing. (5:61)


Thus, a closed person does not perceive the truth itself.

  • Nature closed from the truth

But when the truth came to them, they said, “This is magic, and indeed we are, concerning it, closed.” (43:30)

And when Our signs are recited to them as clear evidences, those who closed themselves say of the truth when it has come to them, “This is obvious magic!” (46:7)

O you who have believed! Do not take My enemies and your enemies as patrons! Extending to them affection while they have closed themselves in what came to you of the truth. They expel the prophet and you because you believe God, your Lord.

If you have come out for striving in My way and seeking means to My approval, confiding affection to them, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the straight way.

 If they gain dominance over you, they would be to you as enemies and extend against you their hands and their tongues with evil, and they wish you would close yourselves. (60:1-2)


But the true is the next stage of people’s life, from which they also close themselves.

  • Nature closed from the Day of Debt:

And they say, “When we are lost within the earth, will we indeed be [recreated] in a new creation?” Rather, they are, from the meeting with their Lord, closed! (32:10)


Consequently, people generally close themselves from their responsibilities before God.

  • Nature closed from the duty to God:

Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than God, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave apostasy!

This day those who closed themselves from your duty have despaired! So fear them not, but fear Me! This day I have perfected for you your duty and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you humility as duty. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin – then indeed, God is Forgiving and Merciful! (5:3)


The antipode for those who closed themselves is the people open to God, the Prescription, the signs and the messenger, who will have all their sins closed on the Day of Debt.

  • Closing of the bad on the Day of Debt:

If you disclose your charitable expenditures, it is beneficence; but if you conceal them and give them to the poor, it is better for you. He will remove from you some of your misdeeds. Indeed, God with what you do, is Acquainted! (2:271)

Our Lord, indeed we have heard a caller calling to faith, ‘Believe your Lord!’ and we have believed. Our Lord! So forgive us our trespasses and remove from us our misdeeds and cause us to die with the righteous! (3:193)

And their Lord responded to them, “Never will I allow to be lost the work of any worker among you, whether male or female. You are of one another. So those who emigrated or were evicted from their homes or suffered in My way or fought or were killed – I will surely remove from them their misdeeds, and I will surely admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow as reward from God, and God has with Him the best reward!”

Be not deceived by the [uninhibited] movement of the closed ones throughout the land. (3:195-196)

If you avoid the major of what you are forbidden, We will remove from you your evil deeds and admit you to a noble entrance. (4:31)

God had already taken a covenant from the children of Israel. We delegated from among them twelve seniors. And God said, “I am with you. If you establish prayer and give purifying expenditures and believe My messengers and support them and loan God a goodly loan, I will surely remove from you your misdeeds and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow. But whoever of you closes himself after that has certainly strayed from the straight way.” (5:12)

And if only the holders of the Prescription had believed and was circumspect, We would have removed from them their misdeeds and admitted them to gardens of grace. (5:65)

O you who have believed! If you beware of God, He will grant you a criterion and will remove from you your misdeeds and forgive you. Indeed, God is the possessor of great bounty!

And when those who closed themselves plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you. But they plan, and God plans. And God is the best of planners! (8:29-30)

And those who believed and corrected themselves – We will surely remove from them their misdeeds and will surely reward them according to the best of what they used to do. (29:7)

They will have whatever they desire with their Lord. That is the reward of the doers of good – That God may remove from them the worst of what they did and reward them their due for the best of what they used to do. (39:34-35)

Those who closed themselves and avert [people] from the way of God – He will waste their deeds.

And those who believe and corrected themselves and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad – and it is the truth from their Lord – He will remove from them their misdeeds and amend their mind!

That is because those who closed themselves follow vainness, and those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does God present to the people their comparisons! (47:1-3)

It is He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their faith. And to God belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is God Knowing and Wise.

[And] that He may admit the believing men and the believing women to gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein and remove from them their misdeeds – and ever is that, in the sight of God, a great attainment! (48:4-5)

The Day He will assemble you for the day of assembly – that is the day of mutual deception. And whoever believed God and corrected himself – He will remove from him his misdeeds and admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment! (64:9)

That is the command of God, which He has sent down to you; and whoever is aware of God – He will remove for him his misdeeds and make great for him his reward! (65:5)

O you who have believed! Repent to God with sincere repentance. Perhaps your Lord will remove from you your misdeeds and admit you into gardens beneath which rivers flow.

On the day when God will not disgrace the prophet and those who believed with him. Their light will proceed before them and on their right; they will say, “Our Lord, perfect for us our light and forgive us. Indeed, You are over all things competent!” (66:8)


In addition to this, everything they have done for good will be fully taken into account.

  • Absence of closed nature on the Day of Debt:

So whoever corrected himself while he is a believer – no denial will there be for his effort, and indeed We, of it, are recorders! (21:94)


People, closed from the truth, will not have any support on the Day of Debt, because their patrons (idols, objects of service, etc.) will close themselves from people.

  • Closed nature on the Day of Debt

No! They will close themselves from their worship and will be against them opponents!

Do you not see that We have sent the disobedient ones upon the ones, who closed themselves, inciting them with incitement? (19:82-83)

And there will not be for them among their partners any intercessors, and their partners will be closed. (30:13)

If you invoke them, they do not hear your supplication! And if they heard, they would not respond to you. And on the day of standing before God they will deny your association! And none can inform you like Acquainted [with all matters]! (35:14)

And when the people are gathered, they will be enemies to them, and they will be closed from their worship. (46:6)


The topic of closed nature is used in the Quran concerning this life as well.

  • Nature closed from people

Disobedient (shaitan) said when the matter has been decided, “Indeed, God had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, but I deceived you. But I had no authority over you except that I called you, and you responded to me! So do not blame me, but blame yourselves! I do not call you for help, and you do not call for my help either! Indeed, I am closed from your association of me with God before!” Indeed, for the obscurantists is a painful punishment! (14:22)

There has already been for you an excellent pattern in Ibrahim (Abraham) and those with him.

When they said to their nation, “Indeed, we are disassociated from you and from whatever you serve other than God! We have closed ourselves from you! And there has appeared between us and you animosity and hatred forever until you believe in God alone” except for the saying of Ibrahim (Abraham) to his father, “I will surely ask forgiveness for you, but I have not for you anything from God! Our Lord! Upon You we have relied! And to You we have returned! And to You is the destination! (60:4)


To maintain order in the society, there are sanctions for violating the prescribed regulations. Execution of such sanctions is considered as the closure of the violation.

  • Closure of the violation:

God will not impose blame upon you for repeal of your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for complication of oaths. So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your families or clothing them or the freeing of a deprived. But whoever cannot afford it- then let him fast three days. That is the expiation for oaths! Guard your oaths! Thus does God make clear to you His signs that you may be grateful! (5:89)

O you who have believed! Do not kill the hunting prey while you are banned. And whoever of you kills it intentionally – the penalty is an equivalent from sacrificial animals to what he killed, as judged by two just men among you as an offering delivered to the cubic structure (Ka’bah), or an expiation: the feeding of needy people or the equivalent of that in fasting, that he may taste the consequence of his deed. God has pardoned what is past; but whoever returns, then God will take retribution from him. And God is Exalted in Might and Owner of Retribution! (5:95)


Voluntary forgiveness by the injured party also gives the right to close the incident.

  • Closure of the prescription:

And We ordained for them therein a personality for a personality, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is legal retribution. And whoever justifies himself, then the punishment is closed from him. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed – then it is those who are the obscurantists! (5:45)


All this is aimed to keep people away from transgression

  • Nature closed from transgression:

Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, and what was revealed before you? They wish to go for judgment to transgression, while they were commanded to be closed from it. Disobedient wishes to lead them far astray. (4:60)


The principle of voluntary choice of life path is inherent in our existence. We are given the transcendental information, and the use or refusal of it depends on us.

  • Closed condition:

Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or be he closed. (76:3)


This imposes a special responsibility on us, because our future depends on this.

  • The futility of the activities of those who closed themselves:

But those who closed themselves – their deeds are like a mirage in a lowland which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing but finds God before Him, and He will pay him in full his due; and God is swift in account! (29:34)