The Quran about offenses
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful
Offense – an act that violates any rules, rules of conduct.
“The only man who never makes a mistake is the man who never does anything” wisdom says. Human nature is inherently active, and therefore while acquiring the experience it is doomed to make offenses and violations.
Usually, a violation is an action that does not “fit” in the prescribed or given scope, which entails a negative result. There is no need to describe the result of violation of a rule. It is good, if the violation is not significant. If it is consequently catastrophic, then such a violation is recorded in the category of dangerous and promoted in order to avoid it.
The duty of man before God also involves different restraints, violation of which is condemned by the Creator. The designation of a reprehensible act in the Quran is the word “junah”, which means offense, violation.
In studying the verses with this word, an interesting detail is seen, in the Quran the word junah is used only in the negative sense, i.e. in the context of the absence of a reprehensible act:
Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah mountains are among the symbols of God. So whoever makes pilgrimage to the house or visits it – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. (2:158)
There is no blame upon you for seeking bounty from your Lord. But when you depart from ‘Arafat, remember God at a sacred, ceremonial place. And remember Him, as He has guided you, for indeed, you were before that among those astray. (2:198)
And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who closed themselves wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no offence upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, God has prepared for the closed a humiliating punishment! (4:102)
This topic concerns not only rituals, but also the relationship of a man and a woman:
Prohibited to you for intimate relationships are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your milk mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship born of your wives unto whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in unto them, there is no offence upon you if you have intimacy with them, and wives of your sons who are from your own loins. It is prohibited to gather together two sisters, except for what has already occurred.
Prohibited are women who are inaccessible without the covenant, except for those dependent on you, prescribed to you by God. (4:23-24)
O you who have believed! When the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. God is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the closed ones; they are not lawful for them, nor are they lawful for them. But give them what they have spent. And there is no sin upon you if you enter into intimacy with them when you have given them their due compensation. And hold not to marriage bonds with closed women, but ask for what you have spent and let them ask for what they have spent.
That is the judgement of God. He judges between you. And God is Knowing and Wise. (60:10)
Mothers may breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]. Upon the father is the mothers’ provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable. No person is charged with more than his capacity. No mother should be harmed through her child, and no father through his child. And upon the [father’s] heir is [a duty] like that [of the father]. And if they both desire weaning through mutual consent from both of them and consultation, there is no offense upon either of them. And if you wish to have your children nursed by a substitute, there is no offense upon you as long as you give payment according to what is acceptable. Beware of God and know that God is Seeing of what you do.
And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]. And when they have fulfilled their term, then there is no offense upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable manner. And God is [fully] Acquainted with what you do.
There is no offense upon you if you make an offer of betrothal to women or if you conceal it within yourselves. God knows that you will have them in mind. But do not date with them secretly except if you have already said approved words of betrothal. And do not determine to undertake intimate ties until the decreed period reaches its end. And know that God knows what is within yourselves, so beware of Him. And know that God is Forgiving and Forbearing!
There is no offense upon you if you divorce women you have not touched nor specified for them an obligation. (2:233-236)
And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no offense upon them if they make terms of settlement between them – and settlement is best.
And present in personality is stinginess. But if you do good and are circumspect – then indeed God is ever, with what you do, Acquainted. (4:128)
Divorce is twice. Then, either keep in an acceptable manner or release with good treatment. And it is not lawful for you to take anything of what you have given them unless both fear that they will not be able to keep within the limits of God. But if you fear that they will not keep within the limits of God, then there is no offence upon either of them concerning to compensate a man.
These are the limits of God. So do not transgress them! And whoever transgresses the limits of God – it is those who are the obscurantists.
And if he has divorced her for the third time, then she is not lawful to him afterward until she has intimate relationships with a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her, there is no offence upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep within the limits of God. These are the limits of God, which He makes clear to a people who know. (2:229-230)
In the death of husband
Those who die among you and leave for their wives a bequest: maintenance for one year without turning them out. But if they leave, then there is no offense upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable way. And God is Exalted in Might and Wise! (2:240)
One of the main components in relationships between people is the economic one. In such relationships, there are many rules. The following action does not violate them:
Except when it is an immediate transaction which you conduct among yourselves. For there is no offence upon you if you do not write it. And take witnesses when you conclude a commercial transaction. Let no scribe be harmed or any witness. For if you do so, indeed, it is an apostasy for you! Beware of God, for God teaches you. And God is Knowing of all things! (2:282)
Because human behaviour inevitably affects the surrounding people, it faces a certain framework of rules in society. Here are some examples that do not violate accepted norms of communication:
There is no offense upon you for entering houses not inhabited in which there is convenience for you. And God knows what you reveal and what you conceal. (24:29)
O you who have believed! Let those who are dependent on you and those who have not reached puberty among you ask permission of you at three times: before the dawn prayer and when you put aside your clothing at noon and after the night prayer, – three times of privacy for you. There is no offense upon you nor upon them, for they continually circulate among you. You are for each other. Thus does God make clear to you the signs! God is Knowing and Wise! (24:58)
There is no offence not upon the blind nor upon the lame nor upon the ill nor upon yourselves when you eat in your houses or the houses of your fathers or the houses of your mothers or the houses of your brothers or the houses of your sisters or the houses of your father’s brothers or the houses of your father’s sisters or the houses of your mother’s brothers or the houses of your mother’s sisters or in those, whose keys you possess or in the house of your friend.
There is no offence upon you whether you eat together or separately. But when you enter houses, give greetings of peace upon each other – a greeting from God, blessed and good! Thus does God make clear to you the signs that you may understand! (24:61)
There is no blame upon women concerning their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or their sisters’ sons or their women or those dependent on them. And beware of God! Indeed God is ever, over all things, Witness. (33:55)
The regime of food consumption is set in details, both in religious canons and in non-related areas. From the position of the Quran, the following behaviour is acceptable for believers:
There is not upon those who believed and corrected themselves [any] offense concerning what they have eaten when they were not circumspect, but believed and corrected themselves. Then they beware and believe, and then are circumspect and do good; and God loves the doers of good. (5:93)
The most basic algorithm of human behaviour is presented in the following verse:
And there is no offense upon you for that in which you have erred but [only for] what your hearts intended. And ever is God Forgiving and Merciful! (33:5)