The Quran about associating others with God
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful
At their core, all religions and beliefs differ in the conception of God, His qualities, attributes and manifestations. These conceptions are as diverse as they are represented by different confessions, movements and trends today. The only common concept for all is the concept of the Creator. When analysing all the foundations of faith, you can conditionally divide them into two main views:
1) There is only God, and any form of being is virtual;
2) God exists, and being is His constituent part.
Basically, the history of events with the messengers shows the struggle of these two worldviews.
The first opinion rejects any associating of anyone or anything to the Creator, His deed, qualities and properties.
The second opinion admits the associating of Lord’s creations to Him, to His deeds, qualities and properties.
The information from the Quran will help to understand the essence of this issue. To denote a misconception about the Lord, the Quran uses words, the root of which is an expression “sharika” – be (co) participant, partner; to be involved.
The deification of inorganic objects by people has long been known. Archaeological excavations abound by the facts of such a conception of God. This approach is also reflected in the Quran.
So when the night covered him, he saw a star. He said, “This is my Lord.” But when it set, he said, “I like not those that disappear.”
And when he saw the moon rising, he said, “This is my Lord.” But when it set, he said, “Unless my Lord guides me, I will surely be among the people gone astray.”
And when he saw the sun rising, he said, “This is my Lord; this is greater.” But when it set, he said, “O my nation, indeed I am free from what you associate with God. Indeed, I have turned my face toward He who created the heavens and the earth, inclining toward truth, and I am not of those who associate others with God.” (6:76-79)
There is no question of any kind of deification of natural objects. However, along with this, people “managed” to deify organic things as well.
But they have attributed to God partners – the invisible creatures, while He has created them – and have fabricated for Him sons and daughters without knowledge. Exalted is He and high above what they ascribe! (6:100)
But when He gives them a good, they ascribe partners to Him concerning that which He has given them. Exalted is God above what they associate with Him.
Do they associate with Him those who create nothing and they are [themselves] created? And the false deities are unable to [give] them help, nor can they help themselves. And if you invite them to Guidance, they will not follow you. It is all the same for you whether you invite them or you are silent.
Indeed, those you call upon besides God are servants like you. So call upon them and let them respond to you, if you should be truthful. Do they have feet by which they walk? Or do they have hands by which they strike? Or do they have eyes by which they see? Or do they have ears by which they hear?
Say, “Call your ‘partners’ and then conspire against me and give me no respite. (7:190-195)
Belief in the involvement of representatives of living beings to the divine is absurd and unacceptable. If you look at the root of it, then you see that this view is based on sensual motives.
Have you seen the one who takes as his god his own passion? Then would you be guarantor for him? (25:43)
Have you seen he who has taken as his god his [own] passion, and God has sent him astray due to knowledge and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil? So who will guide him after God? Then will you not be reminded? (45:23)
In what way is the recognition of those involved to the divine actually expressed? In fact, this is manifested in the service to deified object.
And they serve other than God that which neither harms them nor benefits them,
and they say, “These are our intercessors with God ”
Say, “Do you inform God of something He does not know in the heavens or on the earth?” Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him (10:18)
Service can be expressed in the following someone alongside with the Lord:
And do not eat of that upon which the name of God has not been mentioned! Indeed, it is an apostasy! Indeed, the disobedient ones suggest to the ones they patron to dispute with you! And if you were to obey them, indeed, you would be the associators of partners to God! (6:121)
In the dedication of consumer goods to someone along with God, both animals and vegetation:
And the polytheists assign to God from that which He created of crops and livestock a share and say, “This is for God,” by their claim, ” and this is for our partners [associated with Him].” But what is for their “partners” does not reach God, while what is for God – this reaches their “partners.” Evil is that which they rule.
And likewise, to many of the ones who associate partners with God, their partners have made pleasing the killing of their children in order to bring about their destruction and to cover them with confusion in their duty. And if God had willed, they would not have done so. So leave them and that which they invent! (6:136-137)
Judging by the passage and historical facts, the majority of people believed in the main God, namely they recognized one Creator.
And those they invoke besides Him do not possess [power of] intercession; but only those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.
And if you asked them who created them, they would surely say, “God.” So where did their libel come from? (43:86-87)
So what was the error in faith? What conception of the Creator has made people gone from the truth?
This is the opinion on the legislative initiative of certain characters in addition to the Creator.
Or have they other deities who have ordained for them a duty to which God has not consented? But if not for the decisive Word, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed, the obscurantists will have a painful punishment! (42:21)
The reasons for such a misconception, at first glance, are completely innocent and explainable – the desire to approach to the Creator. But the consequence of such an approach is completely deplorable.
Unquestionably, for God is the pure duty!
And those who take patrons besides Him, say, “We only serve them that they may bring us nearer to God in position.” Indeed, God will judge between them concerning that over which they differ! Indeed, God does not guide he who is a liar and closed himself! (39:3)
The true worldview about God is the total denial of the possibility of the associating of someone or anything with Him, with His qualities, deeds and properties.
He to whom belongs the kingship of the heavens and the earth and Who has not taken a son and has not had a partner in kingship and has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination! (25:2)
Defending their worldview, people close themselves from the opposite opinion. Such a state is described in the Quran by words, the root of which is the expression “kafara”, which means: to close, to hide, to cover. A person, even seeing and understanding the other rightness, closes himself from the truth.
The state of nature closed from the signs of God corresponds to the involving partners to/associating others with the Creator.
They have certainly closed themselves who say, “God is the anointed, the son of Mary!” while the anointed has said, “O children of Israel! Serve God, my Lord and your Lord! Indeed, he who associates others with God – God has forbidden him the garden, and his refuge is the fire. And there are not for the obscurantists any helpers!” (5:72)
They have taken their scholars and monks as lords besides God, and [also] the anointed, the son of Maryam (Mary). And they were not commanded except to worship one God! There is no deity except Him. Exalted is He above whatever they associate with Him!
They want to extinguish the light of God with their mouths, but God refuses except to perfect His light, although the closed ones dislike it.
It is He who has sent His Messenger with guidance and true duty to manifest it over all duties, although they who associate others with God dislike it. (9:31-33)
They say, “Then is He who stand above every person, with what it has earned?” But to God they have attributed partners.
Say, “Name them. Or do you inform Him of that which He knows not upon the earth or of what is apparent of speech?” Rather, their cunning has been beautified to those who closed themselves, and they have been averted from the way! And whomever God leaves astray – there will be for him no guide! (13:33)
The relationships of true believers with such people are very tense. Resisting the divine truth presupposes the unjust behaviour of the opponents. Therefore, in response, the Lord declared in the peak of confrontation the following:
[This is a declaration of] disassociation, from God and His messenger, to those whom you had given an obligation among those who associate others with God. So travel freely, throughout the land [during] four months but know that you cannot cause failure to God and that God will disgrace the closed ones!
And [it is] an announcement from God and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage that God is disassociated from those who associate others with Him, and [so is] His messenger. So if you repent, that is best for you; but if you turn away – then know that you will not cause failure to God. And give tidings to those who closed themselves of a painful punishment. (9:1-3)
Being creatures dependent on earthly needs, we most of all understand the associations closest to us. On this principle, some examples are built in the Quran. An example of a loss in this life is vividly described.
And present to them an example of two men: We granted to one of them two gardens of grapevines, and We bordered them with palm trees and placed between them [fields of] crops. Each of the two gardens produced its fruit and did not fall short thereof in anything. And We caused to gush forth within them a river.
And he had fruit, so he said to his companion while he was conversing with him, “I am greater than you in wealth and mightier in [numbers of] men.”
And he entered his garden while he was unjust to himself. He said, “I do not think that this will perish – ever. And I do not think the hour will occur. And even if I should be brought back to my Lord, I will surely find better than this as a return.”
His companion said to him while he was conversing with him, “Have you closed yourself from Him who created you from dust and then from a sperm-drop and then proportioned you [as] a man? But as for me, He is God, my Lord, and I do not associate with my Lord anyone. (18:32-42)
If everything ended only in this life, it would be half bad. However, the punishment does not end there. A person who has not repented, who has not accepted the transcendental doctrine, is doomed to incredible agonies on the Day of Debt.
We will cast terror into the hearts of those who closed themselves for what they have associated with God of which He had not sent down [any] authority. And their refuge will be the fire, and wretched is the residence of the obscurantists! (3:151)
It is not for those who associate others with God to maintain the places for earthly worship before God witnessing against their closed nature. For those, their deeds have become worthless, and in the fire they will abide! (9:17)
Then on the day of standing before God, He will disgrace them and say, “Where are My ‘partners’ for whom you used to oppose [the believers]?”
Those who were given knowledge will say, “Indeed disgrace, this day, and evil are upon the closed ones!” (16:27)
“That is because, when God was called upon alone, you closed yourselves; but if others were associated with Him, you believed. So the judgement is with God, the Most High, the Grand!” (40:12)
Then it will be said to them, “Where is that which you used to associate [with Him in service] Other than God?”
They will say, “They have departed from us; rather, we did not used to invoke previously anything.” Thus does God put astray the closed ones! (40:73-74)
The essence of sending down the Quran is that people, having read the message, could see an erroneous worldview.
Ask, “Are there of your ‘partners’ any who begins creation and then repeats it?”
Say, “God begins creation and then repeats it, so how are you deluded?”
Ask, “Are there of your ‘partners’ any who guides to the truth?”
Say, “God guides to the truth. So is He who guides to the truth more worthy to be followed or he who guides not unless he is guided? Then what is with you – how do you judge?” (10:34-35)
Ask, “Who is Lord of the heavens and earth?”
Reply, “God .”
Ask, “Have you then taken besides Him patrons not possessing for themselves any benefit or any harm!?”
Ask, “Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light?
Or have they attributed to God partners who created like His creation so that the creation seemed similar to them?”
Say, “God is the Creator of all things! And He is the One, the Prevailing!” (13:16)
Say, “Invoke those you claim besides God!” They do not possess an atom’s weight in the heavens or on the earth, and they do not have therein any partnership [with Him], nor is there for Him from among them any assistant! (34:22)
God presents an example: a slave owned by quarreling partners and another belonging exclusively to one man – are they equal in comparison? Praise be to God! But most of them do not know. (39:29)
Say, “Have you considered that which you invoke besides God? Show me what they have created of the earth; or did they have partnership in the heavens? Bring me a Prescription [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you should be truthful!” (46:4)
We need an explanation of the truth. After all, without having the right idea about the Creator, we can fall into a very difficult situation where there is no salvation.
Unquestionably, to God belongs whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth. And those who invoke other than God do not [actually] follow [His] “partners.” They follow not except assumption, and they are not but falsifying (10:66)
And most of them believe not God except while they associate others with Him. (12:106)
Appeal to Him, turning in repentance to Him! Beware of Him! Establish prayer and do not be of those who associate others with God and of those who have divided their duty and become groupings, every faction rejoicing in what it has. (30:31-32)
The mercy of the Almighty is unlimited and provides a chance to absolutely everyone through the warning of danger.
Indeed, God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with God has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin. (4:48)
Indeed, God does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with God has certainly gone far astray. (4:116)
The impartial mind inevitably comes to the only true decision and renounces from his misconception. The result of thinking about the signs of God and adjusting your worldview will be success in both worlds.
A God has promised those who have believed among you and corrected themselves that He will surely grant them succession upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them. He will surely strengthen them in fulfilment of the duty, which He has approved for them. He will surely substitute their fear to security, saying:
“They worship Me, not associating any partners with Me.
But those who close themselves after that – are the apostates. (24:55)