The Quran about knowledge
In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful
Man differs from the rest of the animal world in the ability to acquire and develop his knowledge. Knowledge can relate to completely different topics and concepts. To date, the following concepts of knowledge have been formed:
Knowledge is a form of existence and systematization of the results of human cognitive activity. There are allocated different types of knowledge: scientific, everyday (common sense), intuitive, religious, etc.
Ordinary knowledge serves as the basis for a person’s orientation in the surrounding world, the basis of his daily behavior, but usually contains errors and contradictions.
Scientific knowledge is inherent in the logical validity, evidence, and reproducibility of results, verifiability, and the desire to eliminate errors and overcome contradictions. (Wikipedia)
Knowledge is a result of knowledge of reality, tested by practice and verified by logic, reflected in the mind of a person in the form of representations, concepts, judgments and theories. (Glossary)
We understand that knowledge can differ in degrees of importance for a person. And what knowledge is more important for the believer in the Lord? Of course, for any believing person, the priority is knowledge obtained from God, which is located in the Prescription.
And We had certainly brought them a Prescription which We detailed by knowledge – as guidance and mercy to a people who believe. (7:52)
And if they do not respond to you – then know that it was revealed with the knowledge of God and that there is no deity except Him. Then, would you be humble? (11:14)
From the above excerpts, one can conclude that the Quran is priority knowledge. As will be seen below, the Creator Himself regards the Prescription as a sent knowledge.
And the Jews or the Christians will never be pleased with you until you follow their community. Say, “Indeed, the guidance of God is the Guidance.” If you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, you would have against God no patron or helper. (2:120)
And if you brought to those who were given the Prescription every sign, they would not follow your direction. Nor will you be a follower of their direction. Nor would they be followers of one another’s direction. So if you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, indeed, you would then be among the obscurantists. (2:145)
Then whoever argues with you about it after knowledge has come to you – say, “Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly and invoke the curse of God upon the liars!” (3:61)
And thus We have revealed it as an Arabic judgement. And if you should follow their passions after what has come to you of knowledge, you would not have against God any helper or any guardian! (13:37)
However, Muslims cannot unequivocally assert that only they have true knowledge. The fact that the holders of the previous Prescriptions have knowledge from the Creator is confirmed by the following passages.
Indeed, the duty in the sight of God is humility. And those who were given the Prescription did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. And whoever is closed from the signs of God, then indeed, God is swift in account! (3:19)
And We had certainty settled the children of Israel in an agreeable settlement and provided them with good things. And they did not differ until the knowledge had come to them. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the day of standing before Him concerning that over which they used to differ! (10:93)
And they did not become divided until after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves… (42:14)
And We gave them clear proofs of the matter. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the day of standing before Him concerning that over which they used to differ! (45:17)
Like Muslims, Jews and Christians broke into many branches. We all have the same problem: everyone relies on their belief in non-Torah and non-Evangelistic sources. Therefore, in the Quran, the Almighty calls upon all the holders of the Prescription to establish the Torah and the Gospel straight, thus getting rid of the husks that are outside the God’s Command.
And let the holders of the Gospel judge by what God has revealed therein. And whoever does not judge by what God has revealed – then it is those who are the apostates! (5:47)
And if only they upheld the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to them from their Lord, they would have consumed from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them is a moderate headship, but many of them – evil is that which they do. (5:66)
Say, “O holders of the Prescription! You have nothing until you uphold the Torah, the Gospel, and what has been revealed to you from your Lord.” And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord will surely increase many of them in transgression and closed nature. So do not grieve over the closed people!
Indeed, those who have believed and those who were Jews or Sabeans or Christians – those who believed God and the last day and corrected themselves – no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve! (5:68-69)
In the light of the increasing influence of religion in the world, the question becomes urgent (both in interfaith dialogue and in the explanations of religious scholars) about the system of arguments and evidence from the position of faith in the Lord. As already mentioned above, the most significant knowledge necessary for the foundation of their arguments is the Prescription of the Creator. Reliance not on the divine book, but on other sources is blamed by our Creator.
And of the people is he who disputes about God without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening Prescription (22:8)
Do you not see that God has made subject to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and amply bestowed upon you His favors, apparent and unapparent? But of the people is he who disputes about God without knowledge or Guidance or an enlightening Prescription! (31:20)
Of course, the opinion, that Knowledge, Guidance and Prescription are different things, is possible, but the following passage places everything in its place.
This is the Prescription about which there is no doubt, guidance for those circumspect. (2:2)
Thus, Knowledge, guidance and Prescription are one whole, therefore, talking about knowledgeable people mentioned in the following passages, we can say that their knowledge is based on the divine Prescription.
It is He who has sent down to you the Prescription. In it are precise signs – they are the foundation of the Prescription – and others similar. As for those in whose hearts is deviation, they follow that of it which is similar, seeking to charm and seeking to interpret it. And no one knows its interpretation except God! But those firm in knowledge say, “We believe in it. All is from our Lord.” And no one will be reminded except those of understanding! (3:7)
God witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and the maintainers and those of knowledge – persistent in balance. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise! (3:18)
But those firm in knowledge among them and the believers believe in what has been revealed to you, and what was revealed before you. And the establishers of prayer and the givers of purifying expenditure and the believers in God and the last day – those We will give a great reward! (4:162)
The Quran opens the door to the boundless field of activity of the human mind in the study of the world around him. Therefore the basis of understanding any scientific discoveries should be the Prescription of God – the Quran. Any attempt to rely on non-Quranic truths leads to a distortion of the essence of this or that “creative” insight of a man.